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Home » How to Insert and Edit Secondary Citations or Indirect Citations in Word Using EndNote

How to Insert and Edit Secondary Citations or Indirect Citations in Word Using EndNote

    Secondary sources

    This article explores how to seamlessly insert and manage secondary citations in Microsoft Word using EndNote.

    What Are Secondary or Indirect Citations?

    In scholarly work, a primary source refers to original content, while a secondary source refers to content that was first reported in another source. Secondary sources are typically used when the original work is:

    • Out of print
    • Unavailable
    • Available only in a language you do not understand

    Image from Wikipedia – Secondary sources

    As a matter of good scholarly practice, it’s best to find and cite the primary source directly whenever possible. However, there are situations where citing a secondary source becomes necessary.

    Tips for Citing Secondary Sources

    • Try to locate the Primary Source
      Whenever feasible, find and read the original research directly. If you encounter a secondary source, try to trace it back to the primary source.
    • If the primary source’s publication year is known, include it in the text citation.
      If the year of the primary source is unknown, omit it from the in-text citation.
    • In-Text Citations
      In the text, identify the primary source and write “as cited in” followed by the secondary source that you used: (Amati, 1615, as cited in Lach and Van Kley, 1993, p. 509).
    • Reference List Entries
      In the reference list, provide an entry only for the secondary source you used.

    Examples in APA and MLA Styles

    APA Style

    Suppose you read a work by Lyon et al. (2014) in which Rabbitt (1982) was cited, but you were unable to access Rabbitt’s work directly. Here’s how you would cite it:

    • Add “as cited in” before the secondary source
    • In-text citation: (Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014, p. 204)
    • Reference list: Only Lyon et al.’s work appears in the reference list.

    MLA Style

    In MLA, secondary sources are cited differently. If you found information in a source that you have not read but discovered it mentioned in another work, follow these guidelines:

    • Add “qtd. in” (meaning “quoted in”) before the secondary source, i.e. “Sentence with original Author Last name (qtd. in secondary source Author Last name Page no).”
    • In-text citation: According to Rushdie myths are “the waking dreams our societies permit” (qtd. in Mann 835)
    • Reference list: Only Mann’s work appears in the reference list.

    Remember that strong research writing is based on using sources you have read. Secondary citations should be used sparingly, and whenever possible, seek out and cite the primary source directly.

    For more detailed guidelines, consult the official style manuals for each citation style. Google “secondary citations APA style”.

    How to Insert and Edit Secondary Citations in Word Using EndNote

    When crafting academic papers, it’s essential to cite your sources accurately. Sometimes, you encounter information indirectly—through secondary sources. These secondary citations refer to content that was originally reported in another work. In this article, we’ll explore how to insert and edit secondary citations in Microsoft Word using EndNote.

    Step-by-Step Guide

    Follow these steps to incorporate secondary citations into your Word document:

    1. Open Your EndNote Library
      Launch EndNote and access your reference library, where you’ve stored your citations.
    2. Open Your Word Document
      Open the Word document in which you want to add a citation.
    3. Insert the Citation
      – Click the “Insert Citation” button in the Word [EndNote] Menu.
      – In the EndNote Find & Insert My References window, search for the Author, Title or Year of the work you want to cite.
      – Choose the desired citation and click “Insert”.
      – The citation will appear where you left your cursor, and the reference list entry will automatically generate at the end of your document.
    4. Editing the Secondary Citation
      – To modify a secondary citation (e.g., adding “as cited in”, page numbers, etc.), Right-click the in-text citation in your document and choose Edit Citation -> More, from the popup menu.
      – Enter i.e. “Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in ” (note space at the end) in the Prefix field, and “204” in the Pages field, and click the Ok button.
      – Please note that some styles do not allow or do not work with the Pages field. You can add “, p. 204” in the Suffix field in these cases.
    EndNote - How to insert and edit a secondary source citation